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[highlight1]  M4 Fővám & Gellért – Twin Stations  [/highlight1]

These two metro stations are part of the most important infrastructure project currently in Budapest, the M4 metro line. The original idea of the line was invented by the engineers in the 1980’s, about 30 years ago. It was a metro line designed according the thinking of that decade. Budapest’s first subway line, the „yellow line” called Kisföldalatti, was opened in 1896. This was the first underground railway in continental Europe and the world’s first electrically powered subway. It had been built in 21 months using the highest level of technology including a prefabricated structure of steel slabs. After a long period of time, there arose the possibility for another line to be built; this was the M2 or „red line”. The construction began in 1950 during the socialist era; after a long interval it was completed in 1973. This east-west line was built in a similar manner as the M4 plan, but the stations have been mined. This is typical of metro stations in Budapest. The construction of a new, north-south subway line was initiated in 1970. This was the M3; it was completed in 1990. The missing line, the M4, was conceived about that time, to provide a quick east –southwest public transport connection.

Twin-Stations-By-sporaarchitects-02-M4-Fovam-Station-Tamas-Bujnovszky-450x675 M4 Fővám & Gellért - Twin Stations / sporaarchitectsM4 Fővám Station – © Tamás Bujnovszky

The new metro line planned in Budapest is to connect South-Buda with the city center.10 stations will be constructed in the first step. The new metro line is constructed along the 7,34 km line. The main character of the stations is defined by the cut-and cover technology, resulting in large underground boxes for the stations. The architectural decision was to clear this boxes keeping only the necessary rough structures in the headspace of the stations. Thus huge reinforced concrete beams can be lit by natural light from above, if possible, providing an extraordinary effect in the deep stations.

Szent Gellért tér station is one of the deepest stations of the line; it is situated below the bank of river Danube on the Buda side, the surface area being part of the UNESCO World Heritage.

Twin-Stations-By-sporaarchitects-06-M4-Fovam-Station-Tamas-Bujnovszky-450x300 M4 Fővám & Gellért - Twin Stations / sporaarchitectsM4 Fővám Station – © Tamás Bujnovszky

The station is in a very special situation, because of its place in the city and because of the Duna River and the Gellért Hill. Structural design of the station is determined by the vertical alignment of the line. The depth of the platform level is 36 ms from the surface. The station is divided into two main structural parts, requiring two different building methods. Below the Mûegyetem (Polytechnic) embankment there is a box structure built in an open pit from the surface. The other part of the station is under an existing building, it was built by NAT method.

The box will be supported by three levels of reinforced concrete beams, which structure will be made like a net. There are three layers of this network; they keep the walls of the box like a bone-structure. Two of them-over the platform level, and the highest level- are partly gallery, these are the two entrance areas of the station. The design of the box is determined by this visible concrete net-structure. In the main front of the box, which is a concrete wall covered with corten steel, run two elevators with glass walls faced to the inside, in order to connect both visually and physically the parts of the building with the surface.

Twin-Stations-By-sporaarchitects-10-M4-Fovam-Station-Tamas-Bujnovszky-450x300 M4 Fővám & Gellért - Twin Stations / sporaarchitectsM4 Fővám Station – © Tamás Bujnovszky

In the other part the tunnels have curved cross section. The walls and the columns will be covered with mosaic tiles artwork reflecting to the Zsolnai ceramic tiles of Gellért hotel, which is nearby the site. The most important challenge of the architectural design for us was to make one building of these two completely different parts. The way we have chosen to do so was to make them as different as it comes from the different building methods and forms. This structural plainness provokes tension in the interior.

Only a complex structural system could fulfil the requirements emerging from the proximity of the Danube and the given construction site. On that reason, “FŐVÁM TÉR” station is composed of a cut-and-cover box and tunnels.

Twin-Stations-By-sporaarchitects-15-M4-Fovam-Station-Tamas-Bujnovszky-450x676 M4 Fővám & Gellért - Twin Stations / sporaarchitectsM4 Fővám Station – © Tamás Bujnovszky

The complexity of the structure is even greater, since here a new tunnel for the tramline and a new pedestrian subway has to be constructed. The station is more than a simple metro station, it is a complex traffic junction of the city, an interchange spot for tramways, buses, metro, ships, cars and pedestrians, which altogether create a unique spacey public space above and under the ground. Fővám metro station is new multilevel city junction, gateway of the historic downtown of Budapest.

The box is supported by three levels of reinforced concrete beams, the structure of which are similar to a net. (04) There are three layers of this network, which keep the walls of the box like a bone-structure. The design of the box is determined by this sight of concrete net-structure. In the other part the tunnels have a curved cross section. The walls and the columns will be covered with ceramic tiles.

Due to the construction technology, huge rooms have been created in the inner spaces of the stations. The section of the space is proportional to cross section of average street in downtown Pest, built in the eclectic period in the 19th century, so the station can be interpreted as an inverse street or square under the surface. Playing on natural light has been an important aspect in the architectural formation of the entire line. On the surface of Fővám tér a huge square will be created without traffic. This will allow of locating glassy, crystalloid skylights, which will let the sunlight reach the platform level, emphasizing the unique character of the beam network.

Twin-Stations-By-sporaarchitects-20-M4-Fovam-Station-Tamas-Bujnovszky-450x300 M4 Fővám & Gellért - Twin Stations / sporaarchitectsM4 Fővám Station – © Tamás Bujnovszky

sporaarchitects:

M4 FŐVÁM STATION:

The new metro line planned in Budapest is to connect South-Buda with the city center.10 stations will be constructed in the first step . Szt. Gellért tér and Fővám tér station is on the left and right sides of the Danube river.

“FŐVÁM TÉR” station is a twin station of the Szent Gellért tér, similarily with a complex stucture composed of a cut-and-cover box and tunnels. The complexity of the structure is even greater, since here a new tunnel for the tramline and a new pedestrian subway has to be constructed, as well. Having the new underground station, Fővám tér will become a new gateway of the historic downtown of Pest.

Twin-Stations-By-sporaarchitects-25-M4-Fovam-Station-flickr-Romeodesign-450x664 M4 Fővám & Gellért - Twin Stations / sporaarchitectsM4 Fovam Station – © flickr-Romeodesign

Only a complex structural system could fulfil the requirements emerging from the proximity of the Danube and the given construction site. On that reason, the station is constructed of a cut-and-cover box and for tunnels.
The station is divided into two main stuctural parts as well as two building methods. There is a box structure built through an open pit from the surface. Work pits are supported by slurry or pile walls. The other part of the station is under an exisisting building, it is built using NAT methods.

The box will be supported by three levels of reinforced concrete beams, the structure of which will be similar to a net. There are three layers of this network, which keep the walls of the box like a bone-structure. The design of the box is determined by this sight of concrete net-structure. In the other part the tunells have a curved cross section. The walls and the columns will be covered with printed ceramic tiles of the arfwork type, reflecting to the Zsolnay ceramics of the Gellért hotel, wich is nearby the site.

Twin-Stations-By-sporaarchitects-27-M4-Fovam-Station-flickr-Romeodesign-450x300 M4 Fővám & Gellért - Twin Stations / sporaarchitectsM4 Fovam Station – © flickr-Romeodesign

Due to the construction technology, huge rooms have been created in the inner spaces of the stations. The section of the space is proportional to cross section of average street in Pest ,built in the eclectic period in the 19th century, so the station can be interpreted as a inverse street or square under the surface.

Playing on natural light has been an important aspect in the architectural formation of the entire line. The main goal is –apart from giving enough light of course- to attend on the interior design and show the architectural forming as much as possible.

On the surface of Fővám tér a huge square will be created without traffic. This will allow of locating glassy, crystalloid skylights, which will let the sunlight reach the platform level, emphasizing the unique character of the beam network.

Twin-Stations-By-sporaarchitects-30-M4-Fovam-Station-flickr-Romeodesign-450x300 M4 Fővám & Gellért - Twin Stations / sporaarchitectsM4 Fovam Station – © flickr-Romeodesign

M4 GELLÉRT STATION:

The new metro line planned in Budapest will connect South-Buda with the city center.10 stations will be constructed along the 7,34 km line. The terminal stations are two busy train stations, Keleti and Kelenföld.

The Szt. Gellért tér station is one of the deepest stations of the line, it is situated bellow the bank of Duna river on the Buda side, the surface area is part of the UNESCO World Heritage.

Twin-Stations-By-sporaarchitects-31-M4-Gellert-Station-Tamas-Bujnovszky-450x300 M4 Fővám & Gellért - Twin Stations / sporaarchitectsM4 Gellert station – © Tamás Bujnovszky

The station is in very special situation, because of its place in the city and because of the Duna River and the Gellért Hill. Structural design of the station is determined by the vertical alignment of the line. The dept of the peron level is 36 m from the surface. The station is divided two main stuctural part, and two build method to. Bellow the Mûegyetem embankment there is box structure built in open pit of from the surface. Work pits are supported by slurry or pile walls. The other part of the station is under an exisisting building, it will be built by NAT method.

The box will be supported by three level of reinforced concrete beams, wiches structure will be made like a net. There are three layer of this network, they keep the walls of the box like a bone-structure. Two of them-over the peron level, and the highest level- are partly galery, these are two entrance area of the station. The design of the box is determinated by this sight concrete net-structure, the walls are covered by prefabricated concrete panels (hyde the ventilation chanels and other services). On the main front of the box, on the metallnet (copper) covered concrete wall runs two elevator with glass wall faced to the interieur, to connect visualy and physically the parts of the building with the surface.

Twin-Stations-By-sporaarchitects-34-M4-Gellert-Station-Tamas-Bujnovszky-450x300 M4 Fővám & Gellért - Twin Stations / sporaarchitectsM4 Gellert station – © Tamás Bujnovszky

In the other part the tunells have curved cross section. The walls and the columns will be covered with printed ceramic tiles, wich will be an artwork, reflected to the Zsolnai ceramics of the Gellért hotel, wich is nearby the site.

The most important challange of the architectural design for us was to make one building of this two completly different part. The way we have choosen was to make them as different as it commes from the different building method and form. The only structural element, wich connect the two part is the curved prefabricated concrete wallpanel semitunell with the security glass smoke curtain wall and the main information and lighting system over the peron level. This structural plainness provocate tension in the interieur, or better to say exterior. Another aim of the design was to creat street like spaces under the ground. The size comes from the basic structure of the station. The section of the space is proportional to cross section of average street in Pest (V.,VI.,VII.,VIII.,IX., district, buildt in the eclectical period in XIX. century), so the station can be interpreted as a inverse street or square under the surface.

Twin-Stations-By-sporaarchitects-47-M4-Gellert-station-flickr-Romeodesign-450x300 M4 Fővám & Gellért - Twin Stations / sporaarchitectsM4 Gellert station – © flickr-Romeodesign

 

There are two entrances of the station. One of them, the main entrance is on Szt Gellért square, here are the ticket office, other facilites. The metro can be riched from here by four escalators through an long sightconcret tube. The tube arrives in the box structure of the station. (The surface design here follows the original design of this square, designed by others, there won’t be building on the surface.) The second exit/entrace is situated on Mûegyetem embankment, contains two elevator, and one smaller stair with a small glas house on top. The gallery of the exit here connect the station to the big underground parking garage wich will build soon here. We can let in some natural light into the box throu the glassbox, it is only symbolic, but it is very significant for us.

The ligthing of the station is impotant, because the space is under the ground. The main goal is –naturally beside give enough ligth- to attend on the enterieur design and show the architectural forming as mach as possible. We can’t bring much natural light into the station, because there are existing building and main trafic road over the peron level, so the lighting concept is based on artificial light. In the box the main light imitate the natural light, wich comes like sunshine from top through the concrete beam network.

Twin-Stations-By-sporaarchitects-52-M4-Gellert-Station-Tamas-Bujnovszky-450x300 M4 Fővám & Gellért - Twin Stations / sporaarchitectsM4 Gellert Station – © Tamás Bujnovszky

[highlight1]  Project Data  [/highlight1]

Project name:

  • M4 metro line FŐVÁM TÉR UNDERGROUND STATIONS, BUDAPEST
  • M4 metro line Szt. Gellért tér station, BUDAPEST

Location: center of Budapest, Quay of River Danube, Hungary
Coordinates:

  • FŐVÁM TÉR – 47.486361, 19.057264
  • Gellért tér – 47.483255, 19.054217

Type: Terminal / Station
Structure system: reinforced concrete
Site area: 3000 sqm/station
Project Area: 7100 sqm/station
Design Year: FŐVÁM TÉR 2005-2013, Gellért tér 2005-
Construction Year: FŐVÁM TÉR 2007-2014, Gellért tér 2007-2012
Status: Built
Budget: cca. 20 million Euro/ station
Completion Year: 2014
[box_note]
Awards:

  • 2015 – ArchDaily Building of the Year Award – Category: Public Architecture – Winner
  • 2014 – Architizer A+ Awards – Typology Categories: Transportation>Bus & Train Stations – Popular Choice Winner & Jury Winner

[/box_note]

[highlight1]  The people  [/highlight1]

Client / Owner / Developer: Budapest Transport Ltd. DBR Metro Project Directory
Architects: sporaarchitects – Szekely Mihaly u.8, Budapest, Hungary, H-1061
Architects In Charge: Tibor Dékány, Sándor Finta, Ádám Hatvani, Orsolya Vadász
Design Team: Zsuzsa Balogh, Attila Korompay project architects, Bence Várhidi, Noémi Soltész, András Jánosi, Diána Molnár, Károly Stefkó
Text Description: © Courtesy of sporaarchitects, east-centricarch
Images: © sporaarchitects, Tamás Bujnovszky, flickr-Romeodesign, flickr-horgmoo

[highlight1]  Video  [/highlight1]
[highlight1]  Location Map  [/highlight1]

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